Beneventan and central Italian notations seem to be most clearly differentiated from each other in the form of the scandicus. In Beneventan and in reformed Guidonian ‘Italo-Beneventan’ staff notations from central Italy all three elements are conjunct, ending in a vertical virga. Central Italian notations also use the disjunct form (inherited from adiastematic Italian systems) for the scandicus: two puncta and a virga. But the conjunct scandicus is also present in these sources and further research is needed to establish whether this is the result of Beneventan influence or whether the quilismatic scandicus is intended. Central Italian notation is further characterized by the two forms of the clivis (pointed and right-angled), the tendency to build long chains of notes, the right-inclined virga at the start of the climacus and moderation in the use of special neumes. The direction of the script is diagonal both ascending and descending, but the angle differs within the area.

Bent, Ian D., David W. Hughes, Robert C. Provine, Richard Rastall, Anne Kilmer, David Hiley, Janka Szendrei, Thomas B. Payne, Margaret Bent, and Geoffrey Chew. 2001 "Notation." Grove Music Online. January 20, 2001. Updated and revised July 1, 2014.

See the following example from I-Ac 693, f. 10r:

example from manuscript

Contains 287 unique differentiae

Diff. ID Melodic transcription Mode
147t 1--l-m-l-l-k-l--4 Gd
69l 1--h-hg-f-gh-gf-f--4 Fa
188a 1--l-l-k-l-j-h--4 ad
363a 1--l-m-l-l-kj-lkjh--4 Gd
170a 1--k-kj-h-jk-hg-g--4 Gc
79a 1--l-m-l-l-k-lmnmlml--4 Gd
196a 1--jh-k-j-h-jhg-h--4 Eb
128a 1--e-e-d-e-dc-defed--4 DE
64v 1--h-h-g-f-g-h--4 Da
184a 1--e-e-d-e-dc-d--4 DE
197a 1--h-hg-f-h-gf-f--4 Fa
127d 1--k-k-k-k-k-l--4 Gc
147u 1--l-m-l-l-k-l--4 ad
69s 1--h-hg-f-gh-g-f--4 Fa
190a 1--e-e-d-e-f-e--4 EE
363b 1--l-m-l-l-kj-lkkjh--4 ad
171a 1--k-k-l-j-kj-hg--4 Gc
7o 1--h-h-f-gh-g-f--4 Fa
111c 1--k-k-jh-kj-hg-g--4 Gc
131l 1--k-k-l-j-k-hg--4 Gc
64w 1--h-h-g-f-g-h--4 Ea
184b 1--e-e-d-e-d-cd--4 EE
198a 1--h-h-g-h-gf-g--4 Fa
147v 1--l-m-l-l-k-l--4 cd
71f 1--h-h-g-f-g-ghgfe--4 Da
191a 1--g-h-f-g-h-g--4 EG
363c 1--l-m-l-l-kj-lkjh--4 ad
178a 1--l-l-m-k-l-j--4 Gd
88a 1--e-e-d-e-dc-dfed--4 DE
113d 1--k-k-k-k-k-kjhg--4 Gc
141c 1--l-l-m-l-l-k--4 Gd
66ppp 1--h-h-g-f-ghg-g--4 Da
184c 1--m-m-l-k-l-m--4 Ge
198b 1--h-h-g-h-g-fg--4 Fa
198c 1--h-h-g-h-g-fg--4 Ea
148c 1--l-m-l-l-k-lkk--4 Gd
71g 1--h-h-g-f-g-hgfe--4 Da
192a 1--g-g-g-f-g-h--4 EG
364a 1--l-k-m-k-l-j--4 Gd
179a 1--l-m-l-l-kj-hg--4 Gd
99aa 1--k-k-h-k-l-k--4 Gc
114b 1--k-k-k-jh-gh-h--4 ac
142e 1--k-l-m-l-k-kj--4 Gd
66rrr 1--h-h-g-f-g-ghg--4 Da
184d 1--e-e-d-e-dc-d--4 EE
202a 1--h-h-hg-jhg-hgf-g--4 Da
153f 1--f-f-f-ed-cdd-d--4 DF
74j 1--h-h-g-f-g-gfd--4 Da
193a 1--h-h-g-h-gf-ef--4 Ea
52u 1--h-h-h-g-h-g--4 Da
179b 1--l-m-l-k-kj-hg--4 Gd
118ff 1--k-k-j-k-h-g--4 Gc
143aa 1--l-m-l-k-k-jh--4 Gd
66sss 1--h-h-g-f-gh-g--4 Da
186a 1--f-f-e-f-d-f--4 CF
202b 1--h-h-hg-jhg-hgf-g--4 Ea
168a 1--h-h-j-g-j-hg--4 Da
75i 1--h-h-g-f-g-gfed--4 Da
194a 1--h-h-g-h-g-eff--4 Ea
54f 1--h-h-g-h-g-f--4 Fa
180a 1--l-m-l-l-kj-lkk--4 Gd
118gg 1--k-k-j-k-hg-g--4 Gc
144m 1--l-l-m-l-k-jk--4 Gd
66ttt 1--h-h-g-f-g-hg--4 Da
186b 1--f-f-e-f-d-f--4 DF
187a 1--h-h-h-g-h-ghg--4 Da
222a 1--e-e-d-c-d-e--4 EE
168b 1--h-h-j-g-j-hg--4 Ea
76b 1--h-h-g-f-g-gfgh--4 Da
194b 1--h-h-g-h-g-ef--4 Ea
55b 1--h-h-h-g-j-h--4 Fa
180b 1--l-m-l-l-kj-lk--4 ad
118ii 1--k-k-j-k-h-g--4 ac
144n 1--l-l-m-l-k-jkk--4 Gd
66vvv 1--h-h-g-f-g-hg--4 Ea
187b 1--h-h-h-g-h-ghg--4 Ea
23a 1--f-f-e-f-d-c--4 DF
169c 1--h-h-g-h-j-h--4 Ga
76c 1--h-h-g-f-g-gfgh--4 Ea
195a 1--h-h-hg-j-h-g--4 Ea
64h 1--h-h-g-f-g-gh--4 Da
180c 1--l-m-l-l-kj-lkk--4 ad
118jj 1--k-k-j-k-h-g--4 Ec
145b 1--l-m-l-l-kj-kl--4 Gd
69d 1--h-h-g-f-gh-gf--4 Da
72b 1--h-h-g-f-gh-gfed--4 Mode 1
60a 1--h-h-g-f-h-gfed--4 Mode 1
70e 1--h-h-g-f-gh-ggfd--4 Mode 1
64l 1--h-h-h-g-f-gh--4 Mode 1
336a 1--h-h-g-f-gh-gfedf--4 Mode 1
64s 1--h-h-g-f-gh-h--4 Mode 1
64b 1--h-h-g-f-g-h--4 Mode 1
72f 1--h-h-g-f-gh-ggfed--4 Mode 1
64q 1--hh-h-g-f-g-hh--4 Mode 1
199a 1--h-h-g-f-gh-f--4 Mode 1
67c 1--h-h-g-f-gh-gh--4 Mode 1
69r 1--h-h-g-f-gh-ggf--4 Mode 1
72gg 1--h-h-g-f-gh-gfeed--4 Mode 1
66bb 1--h-h-g-f-gg-hg--4 Mode 1
64c 1--h-h-g-f-g-gh--4 Mode 1
74e 1--h-h-g-f-gff-d--4 Mode 1
278a 1--h-h-g-f-gh-ggfde--4 Mode 1
75b 1--h-h-g-f-g-ggfed--4 Mode 1
T69b 1--m-m-l-k-lm-lk--4 Mode 1
66zz 1--h-h-g-f-gh-gF--4 Mode 1
66d 1--h-h-g-f-gh-g--4 Mode 1
76a 1--h-h-g-f-gf-gh--4 Mode 1
72ee 1--h-g-f-gh-g-ggfed--4 Mode 1
149a 1--h-h-g-f-gf-h--4 Mode 1
66e 1--h-h-g-f-g-hg--4 Mode 1
75c 1--h-h-g-f-fg-gfed--4 Mode 1
72bb 1--h-h-g-f-gh-gffed--4 Mode 1
66i 1--h-h-g-f-gh-gg--4 Mode 1
75o 1--hh-h-g-f-gg-ggfed--4 Mode 1
64u 1--h-h-g-f-g-ghG--4 Mode 1
316a 1--h-h-g-f-gh-gfdf--4 Mode 1
66ww 1--h-h-g-f-g-hgF--4 Mode 1
66l 1--h-h-g-f-g-ghg--4 Mode 1
T66d 1--m-m-l-k-lm-l--4 Mode 1
304a 1--h-h-g-f-gh-gfede--4 Mode 1
66ee 1--h-h-g-f-gh-ggH--4 Mode 1
11c 1--h-h-h-h-hg-h--4 Mode 1
69b 1--h-h-g-f-gh-gf--4 Mode 1
74p 1--h-h-g-fg-gf-d--4 Mode 1
70c 1--h-h-g-f-gh-gfd--4 Mode 1
11o 1--h-h-h-h-hg-gh--4 Mode 1
74c 1--h-h-g-f-gf-d--4 Mode 1
70d 1--h-h-g-f-gh-gffd--4 Mode 1
T152g 1--k-k-k-j-gH-h--4 Mode 2
150e 1--f-f-f-f-cd-d--4 Mode 2
152b 1--f-f-f-e-c-d--4 Mode 2
152h 1--f-f-f-f-e-cd--4 Mode 2
150d 1--f-f-f-f-c-d--4 Mode 2
T153e 1--k-k-k-jh-gh-h--4 Mode 2
153e 1--f-f-f-ed-cd-d--4 Mode 2
152g 1--f-f-f-e-cD-d--4 Mode 2
80a 1--f-f-f-e-c-dc--4 Mode 2
152i 1--ff-f-f-e-c-dd--4 Mode 2
162b 1--f-f-d-e-f-ed--4 Mode 2
152c 1--f-f-f-e-cd-d--4 Mode 2
T152c 1--k-k-k-j-gh-h--4 Mode 2
53a 1--f-f-e-d-ef-ed--4 Mode 2
101b 1--k-k-kj-hj-h-g--4 Mode 3
98b 1--k-k-k-h-k-jhg--4 Mode 3
118r 1--k-k-j-k-h-g--4 Mode 3
102c 1--k-k-kj-hj-h-gh--4 Mode 3
96a 1--k-k-k-h-k-j--4 Mode 3
96e 1--k-k-k-h-k-kj--4 Mode 3
97a 1--k-k-k-h-k-jh--4 Mode 3
98c 1--k-h-k-j-h-g--4 Mode 3
110c 1--k-k-kj-h-k-jh--4 Mode 3
101j 1--k-k-kj-hj-hh-g--4 Mode 3
105f 1--k-k-kj-hk-hh-g--4 Mode 3
96g 1--kk-k-k-h-kk-jj--4 Mode 3
97g 1--k-k-h-k-k-jh--4 Mode 3
319a 1--k-k-k-h-hl-k--4 Mode 3
138a 1--k-k-k-g-h-gf--4 Mode 3
240d 1--h-g-h-kh-g-e--4 Mode 4
320b 1--h-g-h-j-gf-ef--4 Mode 4
T15f 1--l-k-l-ml-kk-h--4 Mode 4
15f 1--h-g-h-jh-gg-e--4 Mode 4
15l 1--h-hg-h-jh-g-e--4 Mode 4
52p 1--h-h-h-h-h-ghg--4 Mode 4
27c 1--h-g-h-j-gg-e--4 Mode 4
28a 1--h-g-h-j-g-ef--4 Mode 4
34c 1--h-g-h-j-ggf-e--4 Mode 4
T19k 1--l-k-l-lml-kkj-h--4 Mode 4
20a 1--h-hg-h-hjh-gf-edd--4 Mode 4
15m 1--h-hg-h-jh-gg-e--4 Mode 4
52g 1--h-h-h-h-g-ghg--4 Mode 4
28e 1--h-g-h-j-gg-ef--4 Mode 4
T28aC 1--k-j-k-l-j-gh--4 Mode 4
T27aA 1--l-k-l-m-k-h--4 Mode 4
20h 1--h-hg-h-hjh-gf-ed--4 Mode 4
10b 1--h-h-h-h-h-g--4 Mode 4
15b 1--h-g-h-hjh-gg-e--4 Mode 4
15o 1--h-g-h-jhH-g-e--4 Mode 4
11n 1--h-h-h-h-hg-h--4 Mode 4
11m 1--h-h-h-h-gh-h--4 Mode 4
T31a 1--l-k-l-m-k-hk--4 Mode 4
15e 1--h-g-h-jh-ggF-e--4 Mode 4
15t 1--h-hg-h-jhh-g-e--4 Mode 4
35a 1--h-hg-h-jh-gf-eed--4 Mode 4
20i 1--h-hg-h-jh-gf-ed--4 Mode 4
13g 1--h-g-h-jhh-g-ghG--4 Mode 4
T19aB 1--m-l-m-nm-lk-j--4 Mode 4
T52g 1--l-l-l-l-k-klk--4 Mode 4
19q 1--h-hg-h-hjh-gf-e--4 Mode 4
16a 1--h-g-h-jh-g-ef--4 Mode 4
15n 1--h-hg-h-hjh-g-e--4 Mode 4
55d 1--h-h-h-g-gj-h--4 Mode 4
T10cB 1--l-l-l-l-ll-k--4 Mode 4
21e 1--h-hg-h-hjh-gf-ef--4 Mode 4
15r 1--h-g-h-hjh-g-e--4 Mode 4
16e 1--h-g-h-jhh-g-ef--4 Mode 4
16c 1--h-g-h-jh-gg-ef--4 Mode 4
30b 1--h-g-h-j-g-efe--4 Mode 4
317a 1--h-hg-h-jh-gf-efg--4 Mode 4
19g 1--h-hg-h-jh-gf-e--4 Mode 4
11d 1--h-h-h-h-hh-gh--4 Mode 4
240f 1--hh-g-h-kh-g-e--4 Mode 4
27k 1--h-hg-h-j-g-e--4 Mode 4
19a 1--h-g-h-jh-gf-e--4 Mode 4
16d 1--h-hg-h-jh-g-ef--4 Mode 4
19o 1--h-hg-h-jh-gf-ee--4 Mode 4
T11m 1--l-l-l-l-kl-l--4 Mode 4
25e 1--hh-g-h-jj-g-ghh--4 Mode 4
15c 1--h-g-h-jh-g-e--4 Mode 4
13c 1--h-g-h-jh-g-gh--4 Mode 4
27a 1--h-g-h-j-g-e--4 Mode 4
130b 1--kk-k-l-j-k-hk--4 Mode 5
T129aB 1--f-f-g-e-f-d--4 Mode 5
130e 1--k-k-l-j-k-hkk--4 Mode 5
130a 1--k-k-l-j-k-hk--4 Mode 5
129a 1--k-k-l-j-k-h--4 Mode 5
130c 1--k-k-l-j-k-hhk--4 Mode 5
129y 1--k-k-l-j-k-hh--4 Mode 5
T129aA 1--g-g-h-f-g-e--4 Mode 5
5a 1--k-k-l-j-k-hhgf--4 Mode 5
283a 1--k-k-l-j-k-hjk--4 Mode 5
129aa 1--kk-k-ll-j-kk-h--4 Mode 5
7a 1--h-h-f-gh-g-f--4 Mode 6
T69i 1--m-ml-k-lm-l-k--4 Mode 6
64z 1--h-h-g-f-g-gh--4 Mode 6
T7aC 1--f-f-d-ef-e-d--4 Mode 6
69k 1--h-hg-f-gh-gg-f--4 Mode 6
69i 1--h-hg-f-gh-g-f--4 Mode 6
7b 1--h-h-f-gh-gg-f--4 Mode 6
T69k 1--m-ml-k-lm-ll-k--4 Mode 6
T7aA 1--m-m-k-lm-l-k--4 Mode 6
T7bA 1--m-m-k-lm-ll-k--4 Mode 6
T143bA 1--g-g-h-g-f-ed--4 Mode 7
148e 1--l-l-m-l-kkl-k--4 Mode 7
175a 1--l-l-m-l-k-hk--4 Mode 7
147m 1--l-l-m-l-lK-kl--4 Mode 7
142f 1--l-l-m-l-k-jj--4 Mode 7
142h 1--l-l-m-l-kkj-j--4 Mode 7
T147cA 1--h-h-j-h-hg-h--4 Mode 7
143b 1--l-l-m-l-k-jh--4 Mode 7
147c 1--l-l-m-l-lk-l--4 Mode 7
144a 1--l-l-m-l-k-jk--4 Mode 7
147f 1--l-l-m-l-lk-kl--4 Mode 7
143bb 1--ll-l-mm-l-k-jh--4 Mode 7
148a 1--l-l-m-l-kl-k--4 Mode 7
144o 1--l-l-m-l-k-jkJ--4 Mode 7
148b 1--l-l-m-l-k-lk--4 Mode 7
147d 1--l-l-m-l-k-kl--4 Mode 7
145c 1--l-l-m-l-k-jkkl--4 Mode 7
148s 1--l-l-m-l-k-lkk--4 Mode 7
142a 1--l-l-m-l-k-j--4 Mode 7
282c 1--l-l-m-l-k-h--4 Mode 7
142g 1--l-l-m-l-lk-j--4 Mode 7
118f 1--k-k-j-k-hh-g--4 Mode 8
123h 1--k-k-j-kj-hh-g--4 Mode 8
99t 1--k-k-h-k-ll-k--4 Mode 8
122a 1--k-k-j-k-j-h--4 Mode 8
99u 1--k-k-h-k-lM-k--4 Mode 8
99c 1--k-k-hh-k-l-k--4 Mode 8
119a 1--k-k-j-k-h-gh--4 Mode 8
T118aA 1--f-f-e-f-d-c--4 Mode 8
211a 1--k-k-j-kj-h-ghg--4 Mode 8
118a 1--k-k-j-k-h-g--4 Mode 8
T99d 1--f-f-d-f-g-f--4 Mode 8
126a 1--k-k-j-k-h-f--4 Mode 8
211e 1--k-k-j-kj-h-ghgg--4 Mode 8
120g 1--k-k-j-k-h-ghgF--4 Mode 8
118g 1--k-j-k-h-h-g--4 Mode 8
99d 1--k-k-h-k-l-k--4 Mode 8
118u 1--k-k-j-k-hhG-g--4 Mode 8
211d 1--k-k-j-kj-hh-ghg--4 Mode 8
118kk 1--k-k-j-k-h-gH--4 Mode 8
T118f 1--f-f-e-f-dd-c--4 Mode 8
119i 1--k-k-j-k-hh-gh--4 Mode 8
137a 1--k-k-j-k-hhj-g--4 Mode 8
233b 1--k-k-j-kj-h-gh--4 Mode 8
233c 1--k-k-j-kj-hh-gh--4 Mode 8
118l 1--kk-k-j-kk-h-g--4 Mode 8
T118aD 1--g-g-f-g-e-d--4 Mode 8
81a 1--k-k-kjh-k-l-k--4 Mode 8
92j 1--k-k-h-k-h-g--4 Mode 8
120a 1--k-k-j-k-h-ghg--4 Mode 8
T164aC 1--k-k-k-g-j-hg--4 Tonus Peregrinus
78a 1--g-g-g-e-fE-ed--4 Tonus Peregrinus
388a 1--g-g-g-e-f-efd--4 Tonus Peregrinus
164a 1--g-g-g-d-f-ed--4 Tonus Peregrinus
78b 1--g-g-g-e-f-ed--4 Tonus Peregrinus
161a 1--g-h-g-d-f-ed--4 Tonus Peregrinus
Consists of 14 manuscripts

Assisi, Biblioteca comunale, 693

Central Italy
13th century
Monastic order or cathedral
Differentia type

Assisi, Biblioteca comunale, 694

Central Italy
13th century
Monastic order or cathedral
Differentia type

Chicago, Newberry Library, 24

Central Italy
13th century
Monastic order or cathedral
Differentia type